World War II Videos During the two years of the war, British cryptologists decoded German communications with limited success. Older codes, used for low security messages, were readily identified and broken by the Bletchley Park team. Some newer codes were broken mathematically, but decoding and translating these messages by hand proved an arduous task. By the time messages were fully understood, the information they contained was often outdated. Compounding the problem, these intercepts contained very little useful intelligence information. Since the mid-1930s, the German government had used complex cipher machines to disguise their most important communications. The first great code breaking triumph at Bletchley Park came on August 30, 1941. A British “Y Station,” one of the military listening stations that intercepted German communications, picked up a depth, a repeat transmission that used the same settings on the cipher machine. This intercept was forwarded to Bletchley Park. Cryptologists identified as “fish,” the nickname for a message produced by the illusive Geheimschreiber cipher machine. Within two months, the Bletchley Park team broke the high-level German code. To facilitate the processing of “fish” intercepts, Bletchley Park engineers borrowed an idea from plans the Polish intelligence service gave Britain before the war. They constructed a machine that aided the deciphering of intercepts, nicknamed a “bombe” because of the low, roaring noise it made while …
Part 2 of the World War Z Audio Book.
Bruce and Andrea Leininger on the incredible true story of their son, James, as told in the NY Times bestselling book SOUL SURVIVOR: The Reincarnation of a World War II Fighter Pilot.
Video Rating: 4 / 5
One of the bloodiest battles in history, the fighting at Verdun continues throughout the year 1916. French and German forces suffer over 700000 casualties.
Video Rating: 4 / 5
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The World War II was an international military conflict that started in 1939 and ended in 1945. During this time all the global nations especially the great powers formed two major opposing alliances. In this case, more than 100 million military globally were incited. The major participants of the war used their economic, military, scientific, technological and political abilities at the service of the war effort hence eliminating the previously placed distinction between civilian and military. It has been indicated that, World War II was the most deadly conflict between countries of the world throughout human history. This is because it led to the death of so many military personnel and also civilians. During this was, the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters through the military attack bombed the Pearl Harbor in the United States of America that led to America getting involved in the war. Importantly, the American attack by the Japan was to warn it or prevent it from influencing the war that was planned by the Empire of Japan on the Southeast Asia. On this basis, this war was planned against Britain, Netherlands and the Philippines (Aaseng 78).
It should be noted that, Japan had planned to attack Malaya as well as the Dutch East Indies in order to get access of natural resources such as oil and rubber. In this case, Japan viewed America as a threat as far as this invasion was concerned and decided to silence it. On this basis, the United States of America decided to enter into the war to take ravage on the Empire of Japan. As a result of this, the American technology that was basically used in communication was destroyed especially when the ships sunk after being bombed. Notably, during the World War II conflicting countries needed technology and science in communication especially when they used ships. Certainly, the Japanese attack on the American Pearl Harbor destroyed their science and technology as far as codes are concerned and hence forced American military troupes to use the Navajo Indians and their language to make the unbreakable code. In this study, the science that was needed during this war is termed as the science and the Indian innovation will be termed as the technology (Watson 34).
Innovation of Code Talking
A point worth noting is that, code talkers was a terminology that was used during the World War II to describe those people who used the code language to communicate. On this basis, the Native Americans served in the American Marine Corps where their main job was transmission of secret tactical messages that aided the fighters to attain success. Importantly, the code talkers usually transmitted these secret ideas and thoughts over the military telephones with the use of official or unofficial established codes that were created upon their native languages. Basically, this code communication was very vital since it made communication secretive throughout the war period (Utter 110).
Certainly, after the America technology and science were destroyed by the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters the bilingual Navajo speakers were recruited by the Marines in order to function in their standard communications units in the Pacific Theater. According to Santella (32), the aspect of code talking was engineered by the Choctaw Indians that served the United States of America during the World War I. it is of importance to note that, the World War 1 needed advanced technology and science in conquering the conflicting nations. In this case, the innovation of code talking by the Navajo Indians that served the United States of America during this time. On the other hand, the aspect of using this code language and code communications in terms of signals was termed as the World War 11 science. On this basis, there was a need of a code that was not breakable after the American code was broken by the Japanese attack. In this case, this could only be found through innovations of new technology which was done by the Navajo Indians (Santella 32).
A point worth noting is that, the idea of using code talking in order to secure the messages and information sent to the American army and Army air corps was first developed by Philip Johnston. In this case, Philip was one of the few Navajos who were able to speak their native language effortlessly. In this case, he was able to search for military codes that could not be broken by the Japanese specialists in code breaking. This is because he was aware of what the code talking resulted in the World War 1 (McCoy 67).
The reason as to why the code talking technology emerged from the Navajo was because they had the military requirements for illegible code since it is an unwritten language that is very complex and very difficult to understand. In this case, if someone was not trained how to use the Navajo language in talking it would be very hard to understand the syntax and tonal qualities. On the basis of language complexity, the Navajo language and the Navajo Indians were indicated as the most preferable elements that would bring about victory in America. As a result of this, early 1942 Johnston met with Major General Clayton B. who was in charge of the general of Amphibious Corps in Pacific Fleet, and his personnel to induce them of the Navajo language’s value as code. This is because he had shown some qualities in this language that were not present in other languages to make it viable to be used in code talking. In the process of coming up with code talking, Johnston conducted tests under replicated battle conditions where he demonstrated that Navajos could program, broadcast, and decipher a three-line English message in 20 seconds. This was a very essential technology since machines of the time required 30 minutes to perform the same job. As a result of this, Vogel was convinced by this technology and hence suggested to the Commandant of the Marine Corps that the Marines recruit 200 Navajos. This indicates how the code talking in America by the Navajo Indians was innovated and implemented (Langille 37).
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Seattle Premiere of a New Film by A. Jonathan Benny Will Stir Emotions
Vancouver, BC, Canada (PRWEB) September 3, 2005
On Sunday, September 4th the 1 Reel Film Festival at Bumbershoot will present a politically charged film called “Peaceful Propaganda” directed by A. Jonathan Benny which looks at a peace march from the admiring point-of-view of a fascist propaganda film. “I stepped outside one morning,” says Benny, a Vancouver-based filmmaker “and saw hundreds of people marching past me with some holding banners equating Bush to Hitler, signs with swastikas superimposed over the state of Texas and posters calling for the protection of ‘North Korea’s right to Nuclear Arms’. When one of the activists asked me why I was shaking my head, I realized I needed to make this film.”
Benny lugged around an old 35mm movie camera to capture images of actual peace marches that would later be turned into the black and white, mock-propaganda film, complete with a crackling, bellowing voiceover. “I wanted the film to do justice to the perversion I saw that day.” The film, which will also screen in Athens at the International Panorama of Independent Filmmakers in late September shows grainy images of activists proudly holding signs which liken the burning down of the Reichstag in 1933 to the attack on the World Trade Center in 2001.
“Watching the marchers and their children running around looking at the messages that were surrounding them, I felt very sad.” Benny who at one time marched along with the peace movement sees the film as justified. “I’m not pro-war. I used to paint peace-signs on my face and march for hours. I won’t anymore though. I won’t march next to someone holding a sign equating President Bush to Hitler or an activist holding a banner promoting the idea of a communist revolution as a pathway to peace. At its core this film is a documentary that expresses my dismay at those who are willing to trivialize past horrors to further a cause.”
“Peaceful Propaganda” screens at the 1 Reel Film Festival at Bumbershoot in Seattle at 2pm on Sunday, September 4th as part of the “War Torn” program featuring a collection of films commenting on American Foreign Policy. For more information about Bumbershoot and the One Reel Film Festival please visit http://www.onereel.org For more information about A. Jonathan Benny please visit http://www.inter-muses.com
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